Basic overview and requirements of the hottest foo

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Basic overview and requirements of food packaging (Part 2)

III. problems in food packaging

although China's food packaging industry is developing at a high speed, there are also problems of low-level repeated construction, overcapacity and disorderly competition; Due to the large number of small and medium-sized enterprises, low industrial concentration, weak competitiveness, and low technological content of production and products

1. Solvent residue

the solvent residue of composite packaging generally comes from ink, solvent and production process. The commonly used solvents are toluene, butanone, ethyl acetate, which has great equipment sensitivity, etc

gb9683 "Hygienic standard for composite food packaging bags" controls trace harmful substances in adhesives, such as diaminotoluene, but does not require solvent residues; Gb9685 "Hygienic standard for the use of additives for food containers and packaging materials" stipulates 17 categories of additives, solvents, adhesives, etc., and the names and maximum usage of 58 specific substances; Gb10004 "cooking resistant composite film and bag" stipulates that the total amount of solvent residue ≤ 10mg/m2; Gb10005 biaxially oriented polypropylene/low density polyethylene composite films and bags stipulates that the total amount of solvent residues is ≤ 10mg/m2, including benzene residues ≤ 3mg/m2

the United States and the European Union have clearly stipulated the types of adhesives and inks used in food or drug packaging in relevant laws, and stipulated the scope of restrictions on their use. In fact, for the sake of environmental protection, the international community generally stipulates the limit of solvent residue on commodity packaging, and indicates the residue of a certain solvent

in addition, BS flexible packaging materials solvent residue monitoring method; F the test method for the detection of residual solvents in packaging materials specifies the specific method for the determination of residual solvents

generally speaking, China's food packaging standards can no longer fully adapt to the current new problems, and the revision of food packaging standards is urgent

2. Use of food preservative film

food preservative film is divided into polyethylene (PE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) and other types according to material

pvc is widely used in the outer packaging of food and vegetables. Its potential harm to human body mainly comes from two aspects. First, the residue of vinyl chloride monomer in products, such as people exposed to excessive vinyl chloride, will have an impact on human health; Second, processing PVC itself is non-toxic. What is toxic is vinyl chloride monomer and additives

the national standards related to PVC fresh-keeping film include hygienic standard for polyvinyl chloride resin for food containers and packaging materials (gb4803-94); Hygienic standard for polyvinyl chloride molding products for food packaging (gb9681-88) and hygienic standard for the use of additives for food container packaging materials (GB9685-2003)

equipment such as national toxicity in the United States is favored by users everywhere. NTP suggests adding DEHA testing items to PVC fresh-keeping films and reasonably classifying and using PVC fresh-keeping films

3. Polyester

in view of its high mechanical strength, good chemical resistance and good barrier performance, polyester is widely used in food packaging. Recently, China has developed new uses of polyester materials to fill alcohol products with its pasteurization resistance. Due to the migration of a certain amount of terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol from polyester in alcohol solution, the United States Pharmacopoeia has relevant items under control, so it should be cautious to use polyester to contain alcohol products. In addition, the EU regulation 94/62/ec controls the metal elements of lead, cadmium, mercury and hexavalent chromium in these products

IV. foreign food packaging regulations

1. The U.S. regulatory system

FDA manages imported food, drugs and food packaging. FDA released the document "key points for attention of recycled plastics in food packaging - Chemical concerns"; Enterprises exporting goods to the United States should pay special attention to the United States Federal Code. Among them, Volume 16 "business rules" (Title 16 - Commercial corrosion friction and wear testing machine ring sample test steps are mainly divided into two kinds of practices) is the focus that needs to be studied. Food, drugs and cosmetics are stipulated in Volume 21, and the specific export shall also meet the requirements of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In addition, the model legislation officially released by the United States for early warning should also be paid attention to. In October, 2004, the United States officially announced the revised publicity act "toxins in packaging"

regulations on associated packaging in Volume 21 of the United States Code of federal regulations "food, drugs and cosmetics":/p>

-- food must be packaged in conditions that meet health requirements

-- the production of food packaging materials must be in accordance with good management practices (GMP)

-- the packaging materials and their components in contact with food must meet the requirements

for food contact materials, FDA has stipulated the low limit for the transfer of packaging materials to food for the first time through the "regulation threshold". If the transfer amount does not exceed 0.5ppb (i.e. 1.5 micrograms/person/day) in the diet, no food additive application is required. The food contact notification approval process makes packaging manufacturers more concerned about how to obtain the approval of other food additives

2. European regulatory system

the current European regulations on packaging materials in direct contact with food are: 89/109/eec, 90/128/eec, 82/711/eec and 85/572/eec, in which 90/128/eec stipulates that the total mobility limit of substances in plastic packaging materials shall not exceed 60mg/kg food or 10 mg/dm2. Regulation 94/62/ec regulates heavy metals

the use classification of food packaging in the European Union: it is divided into 10 categories of products, including packaging water-soluble food, acidic food, alcohol food, oily food, water-soluble acid food, acidic alcohol food, oil-water mixed food, oily acid food, alcohol water-soluble food, oily alcohol acid mixed food, etc

classification of the use conditions of food packaging: according to the worst foreseeable conditions. There are mainly two aspects: on the one hand, according to the contact time between packaging and food, it is divided into seven grades: t ≤ 5min, 5min ≤ t 0.5h, 0.5h t ≤ 1H, 1H t ≤ 2h, 2h t ≤ 4h, 4H t ≤ 24h and t 24h. On the other hand, according to the contact temperature between packaging and food, it can be divided into 9 grades: t ≤ 5 ℃, 5 ℃ t ≤ 20 ℃, 20 ℃ t ≤ 40 ℃, 40 ℃ t ≤ 70 ℃, 70 ℃ t ≤ 100 ℃, 100 but not so rare: t ≤ 121 ℃, 121 ℃ t ≤ 130 ℃, 130 ℃ t ≤ 150 ℃ and t 150 ℃

the indicators of products are different according to the specific use of products. Taking packaged livestock meat as an example, the nonvolatile index varies according to the oiliness of the packaged livestock meat

1) package fresh, frozen, salty, smoked: no more than


2) package meat sauce: no more than 30mg/dm2

3) package processed (ham, sausage, barbecue, etc.): no more than 40mg/dm2

4) package oil soaked: no more than 10mg/dm2

3. Japanese regulatory system

Japanese food packaging does not need market access permission, and the standard belongs to the scope of voluntary implementation. Packaging manufacturers, sellers and importers must be recognized by the Ministry of health and welfare of Japan. The food safety law authorizes the Ministry of health and welfare to formulate safety standards for certain materials. If Japan has no corresponding standards, it can refer to the FDA of the United States

so far, Japan has published regulations on 12 kinds of raw materials for food packaging, including PVC; Regulations have been issued for 27 containers. In the food additives section of the food hygiene law of Japan, there are provisions on PVC for food packaging. The main tests are the extracts of water, acetic acid, ethanol, n-heptane (25 ℃, 1 hour, not more than 150ppm), vinyl chloride monomer (not more than 1ppm), tin, cresol phosphate, etc

4. Australian regulatory system

Australian food safety standards are formulated by the "food standards authority of Australia and New Zealand". According to its food safety law, they comply with 21cfr parts 170 of the United States_ 199 and EU EEC (mainly 89/109/eec and 2002/72/eec) can be used in Australia. For example, the migration amount of monomer in PVC is not more than 0.01mg/kg in section 1.4.3 of the Australian food safety law

5. The Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAO) also has control over food and packaging

author/Cai Rong

source: Shanghai packaging

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